Sarah Livingston(e)/Lucas

Sarah Livingstone was born in Hobart on 11 March 1853. Sarah was the eldest child of convict parents Charles Livingston(e) per Lord Petre and Mary Sullivan per Australasia.   Her baptism was held at St Joseph’s Catholic Church in Hobart on 30 March 1853. After Sarah’s parents moved to Victoria circa 1859, their surname was changed to Lucas. Sarah would have endured a difficult childhood with her father in and out of prison whilst she was a young child. At nine years of age Sarah was the witness to the scalding death of her 17-month sister, Susan, at Coopers Creek near Daylesford and was required to provide evidence at the coronial inquest.

At the age of 17 Sarah Lucas married 24-year-old James Ickeringill. Their wedding was held on 5 August 1870 at the residence of William Henry Hosken, a minister of the Bible Christian church in Daylesford. Sarah’s father had been released from his second stint at Pentridge Prison six months earlier, which enabled him to be a witness to his daughter’s marriage. At the time, both James and Sarah were residents of Leonard’s Hill, near Daylesford. James listed his occupation as a blacksmith.

Sarah and James had 11 children, the eldest three being born at Daylesford. By 1877 the family moved to Echuca. On 29 May 1877 Sarah was convicted at the Echuca Petty Sessions Court for stealing clothing. She was imprisoned for three months at Sandhurst Gaol until 31 August 1877. Sarah’s prison record states that she served her time with an infant, presumably baby Thomas. Sarah was described as 5 foot tall, with black hair and brown eyes, and she had a sallow complexion. She listed her trade as a dressmaker and could both read and write. In 1878 a fourth child was born in Echuca.

By 1880 the family had relocated to Shepparton. Seven children were born in this town between 1880 and 1893. Sarah was forced to bury her eldest son John on 17 February 1891 after his instantaneous death in an accidental shooting incident. John was unloading his vehicle after a two-day fishing and shooting trip to Gowangardie. His double-barreled muzzle-loading gun caught in his bag and discharged directly into John’s heart. Sarah’s next and youngest child was named in his brother’s honour. Unfortunately, the second John only lived for 21 days. He was buried with his brother in the Methodist section of Shepparton Cemetery on 16 May 1893.

By the turn of the century Sarah, James and most of their children had moved to Western Australia. However this move to the distant state resulted in disunity amongst the Ickeringill family. The 1903 electoral roll shows Sarah living at 19 Harley Street, Perth. James was not living with her, nor does he appear to have lived with Sarah at any point after this date. On 13 April 1905 James appeared at the Collie Police Court on a charge of unlawfully and indecently assaulting three girls under the age of 13 years. Whilst being cleared of this charge due to lack of evidence, James was then found guilty of disorderly conduct and using indecent language at Worsley on 5 April. For this offence he was sentenced to six months imprisonment at Fremantle Gaol. It was reported that James “thanked his Worship for letting him off so lightly”.

By 1910, Sarah had moved from Perth to 9 Melba Street, Kalgoorlie. Living with her were children Charles, who was employed as a butcher, and Ruby Jane, whose occupation was listed as “spinster”. Presumably, the three younger children, Ethel, Olive and Maurice, were also resident at this address. Also in Kalgoorlie was married daughter Elizabeth, whilst older sons James and Thomas worked as miners at Kanowna, near Kalgoorlie.

James Ickeringill died at Claremont Western Australia on 1 July 1920. He was buried at Karrakatta Cemetery, Perth.

In 1922 Sarah buried another son who suffered an accidental death. 44-year-old Jim died after a fall from his horse whilst rounding up cattle in Wyndam, East Kimberley. It is interesting to note that as we celebrate Labour Day today, Sarah was the benefactor of £80 collected by the Australian Workers Union after the untimely death of ‘comrade Jim”. Her heartfelt letter of thanks is attached.

Sarah died age 76 years at the residence of her daughter Elizabeth, at 222 Campbell Street Kalgoorlie on 15 March 1929. The cause of death was vascular disease of the heart. Sarah was buried the following day at Kalgoorlie Cemetery.

At the time of her death Sarah had a total of 22 grandchildren. 

Sarah is my 2x great aunt. ‘My family is my story’. Tracing your family history becomes ‘your story’.

Mary Elizabeth Cuthbertson attestation photos
Mary Elizabeth Cuthbertson Roll of Honour AWM
Vyner Brooke nurses after their release from internment, all wearing what was left of their AANS uniforms AWM

Ballarat's connection to Australia's horror on Radji Beach

Mary Elizabeth Cuthbertson was born on 5 March 1910 to William Melville Cuthbertson and Lilian Beatrice Hooper at Stirling, South Australia.  Mary was the eldest of four children.  Before 1919 the family had moved to Caulfield, Victoria and by 1924 they took up residence at “Glen Care”, Gregory Street, Ballarat North.  The family later moved to Pound Hill, Miners Rest.

Mary Cuthbertson became known as “Beth’.  Beth was 29 years and six months when Prime Minister Robert Menzies announced that Great Britain had declared war upon Germany and as a result, “Australia is also at war”.  This announcement had immediate repercussions for the Cuthbertson family.  Beth’s brother Gordon had been a voluntary enlistee of the Militia Forces since 6 March 1939.  By March 1940 Gordon was attempting to join the RAAF as a mechanic.  His application was approved to enable his enlistment on 30 May 1940.  Two months later Beth’s other brother James enlisted with the AIF on 22 July 1940 in Ballarat and was assigned service number V58191.

Beth was a trained nurse at the Ballarat Base Hospital.  Following on from the call to duty of her brothers, Beth attested for the Australian Army Nurses Service on 20 August 1940 at William Street, Melbourne.  She nominated her father as her next of kin, recording his address as 121 Burnbank Street, Ballarat West. 

Beth was allocated service number VFX38746.  She was initially attached to 7th Australian General Hospital (Reinforcement) whilst in military training.  In early 1941 Beth spent time with the 107 General Hospital at Puckapunyal, near Seymour.

We can only imagine her trepidation when Beth embarked HMT “EE” Serial 491 and sailed for Singapore on 30 July 1941.  Disembarking at Malaya on 17 August, Beth was attached to 10 AGH.  The casualty and service form on Beth’s war record notes two periods of leave whilst in Malaya – five days during October and seven days in December.  An entry was made on 22 April 1942 declaring that Mary Elizabeth Cuthbertson was “missing” from 16 February 1942.  Two further blunt entries made years later, make frightening reading.  On 8 June 1944 it was reported, “Missing bel. Killed on or after 11.2.42”.  Almost one year later on 11 April 1945 the final entry declared, “Ref 03/25/44 Now rep became missing and is for official purposes presumed to be dead 14.2.42”.

So what happened to Beth?  Little can be gleaned from her official service record.  Reading the 52 pages, we learn that Beth’s father, Mr. WM Cuthbertson was sent a telegram on 20 December 1945 which read, “VFX38746 Lieut ME Cuthbertson previously reported presumed deceased 14 February 42 now deceased while Prisoner of war 16 February 42.”  On page 50 of the service record we find an undated entry with the horrific message, “DECEASED Died whilst POW Executed by Japanese Ex MS 295/45.”

“POW”, “Executed by Japanese”, should these words be written on the service record of non-combative personnel such as nurses?  Beth did not enlist to fight.  How could it be that she was executed?

The Australian War Memorial Roll of Honour displays a studio photo of Beth in her military uniform.  We learn that her name appears at panel 96 in the Commemorative Area at the Australian War Memorial.  Beth’s rank is recorded as “Sister’ despite a posthumous promotion to “Lieutenant”. ‘Place of Death’ is recorded as “Banka Island, Netherlands East Indies” and chillingly ‘Cause of Death’ is noted as “Massacred”.

Despite these details not being recorded on her service record, Beth and 64 other Australian nurses were evacuated from Singapore three days prior to the fall of Malaya on 15 February 1942.  The nurses were on board SS Vyner Brooke with injured service personnel as well as civilian men, women and children.  Whilst in the Bangka Strait, their vessel was bombed by Japanese aircraft and sank.  Of the 65 nurses, 12 drowned in the attack.  Understandably chaos and panic ensued during the fight for survival.  Thirty-one nurses were captured and interred as Prisoners of War in abominable conditions – although army personal had presumed that this number was much greater.  Annie Sage, Matron-in-Chief of the Australian Army Nursing Service, was dumbfounded when she only discovered 24 surviving nurses in September 1945, asking “But where are the rest of you?”

It was not until the release of the POW nurses in 1945 that the fate of the others became known.  Eight POW nurses had died in captivity.  However it was the story told by Vivian Bullwinkel that sent shock waves through the Australian public.

After the sinking of Vyner Brooke approximately 100 passengers including 22 nurses managed to reach Radji Beach, including Mary Elizabeth Cuthbertson and two other Ballarat born nurses, Sister Clarice Isobel Halligan (SN. VFX47776) and Sister Kathleen Margaret Nuess (SN. NFX70527).  However relief was short lived once it was realised that they had landed on an island controlled by the Japanese.  An officer of the Vyner Brooke convinced the survivors that they must surrender to the Japanese and he walked to Muntok to do so.  Meanwhile the most senior of the Australian nurses, Matron Irene Drummond suggested that the civilian women and children also leave for Muntok.  The nurses remained to take care of the English soldiers who had arrived on the island after escaping their ship that had also been sunk by the Japanese.  The Australian nurses set up a shelter under a Red Cross sign. 

The ship’s officer returned with approximately 20 Japanese soldiers, who immediately separated the men from the women prisoners.  The men were marched along the beach into a headland.  A rally of shots was heard before the return of the Japanese soldiers.  The nurses realised what was happening and understood their own fate when they were ordered waist deep into the sea.  They were machine-gunned from behind.  Vivian Bullwinkel, the only Australian nurse to survive, recalled the Japanese “started firing up and down the line with a machine gun. … They just swept up and down the line and the girls fell one after the other.  I was towards the end of the line and a bullet got me in the left loin and went straight through and came out towards the front.  The force of it knocked me over into the water and there I lay.  I did not lose consciousness. … The waves brought me back on to the edge of the water.  I lay there 10 minutes and everything seemed quiet.  I sat up and looked around and there was no sign of anybody.  Then I got up and went up in the jungle and lay down and either slept or was unconscious for a couple of days.” 

Vivian was eventually captured and was reunited with her fellow nurses to become the 32nd POW nurse from the Vyner Brooke.  However due to fear of death at the hands of the Japanese if they knew she was a witness to the massacre on Radji Beach, Vivian kept her horrible secret for more than three years whilst captive in a POW camp.  

On 20 December 1946 Vivian Bullwinkle testified at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial. The Australian military investigators attempted to find the perpetrators of the Bangka Island massacre. The commander of the unit responsible, the 229th regiment, was serving in Manchuria at the war’s end. The Russians captured the commander but did not repatriate him to Tokyo until 1948. He was gaoled in Sugarno Prison on 6 June 1948 but committed suicide tow days later. His crimes were not brought to trial.

Sister Kathleen Margaret Neuss - NFX 70527

“Guess you will be thinking I’ve gone up in smoke. There is plenty of it about”. (1)

Only 10 days later Kath Neuss was dead; killed on Radji Beach.

Sister Kathleen ‘Kath’ Margaret Neuss NFX 70527, was born on 16 October 1911 at Mollongghig near Ballarat in Victoria. Kath was the second daughter of John Henry Neuss and Mary Catherine Neuss (nee Perry). Kath’s paternal grandfather was George Neuss, a German immigrant and her maternal grandfather was Samuel Perry, a veteran of the Eureka Stockade in 1854.

In 1913, when Kath was 18 months old her parents packed all their possessions, travelled to Sydney by boat, then train to Glen Innes in northern NSW and finally by Cobb & Co coach to uncleared land her father had selected for farming about 32kms northwest of Inverell.

Life was very hard for the young family. Her father had to clear the land and build their first ‘house’ of 3 rooms with an iron roof and walls lined with hession and papered with wallpaper. The ceilings were also of hession. Their only water tank was a 500 hundred gallon tank at the side of the house. Kath’s parents called their new home “Kalimna” after the Victorian coastal town where they spent their honeymoon. All water for washing and cooking had to be carried by bucket. Kath’s elder sister Jessie (“Jess”) had also been born in Mollongghip and over the next decade another 4 siblings were born at Inverell.

Kath Neuss was initially educated at Bannockburn Public School. Her father would take Jess and Kath on a horse to school and each afternoon the girls would walk the 4 miles home. During a severe drought in 1915/16 Jess and Kath returned to Victoria for about 18 months and went schools at Mollongghig and Rocky Lead where their respective grandparents lived.

Back at “Kalimna” as the family increased a sulky was acquired which, driven by the eldest child, then took the kids to school. Often the children travelled to school by horse; two to each horse with the youngest in front.

In 1926 Kath sat and passed an examination that enabled her to go to Inverell High School in 1927 and 1928. She would board with an Inverell family during the week and then return home each weekend, travelling by horse and sulky; very tiring for a young teenager. Kath initially wanted to be a school teacher but did not pass the teachers entrance examination; a big disappointment to her. After leaving school she trained as a private nurse in Inverell and then at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney, graduating as a Registered Nurse in 1939.

Kath Neuss enlisted in the Australian Army Nursing Service on the 6th January 1941 and was posted to the 2/10th Australian General Hospital. On 4 February the “SS Queen Mary” sailed from Sydney; destination Singapore. On board were elements of the 8th Division AIF and 51 Australian nurses, including Kath who served in Malaya and Singapore. For part of her time Kath was seconded to the 2/13th Australian General Hospital.

In a strange co-incidence, as part of the 2/13th Battalion 9th Division AIF her younger brother Bill had sailed on the “SS Queen Mary” for the Middle East on 20 October 1940. The 9th Division disembarked at Bombay in India and the “SS Queen Mary” returned to Sydney to take the nurses to Singapore. Bill’s pre-embarkation leave in Sydney on 18th October was the last time Kath saw her brother, but letters from Kath in Malaya and Singapore to Bill remain. The last letter to Bill was dated 16th January 1942; exactly one month before Kath died.

Kath was a tall, fun loving and gregarious woman with brown eyes and dark hair. She had a wicked sense of humour, was full of life and her letters home from Malaya and Singapore tell of young woman enjoying her experiences overseas. The nurses had a very good social life and in many of her letters Kath talks about a very close friend Lieutenant Jock Pringle of the 2/18th Battalion. In a letter dated 2 January 1941 Kath wrote

“Jock is still at the Convalescent Depot and hating it still. He too had a move on Monday. I spoke to him on Sunday evening and he was very miserable. Said the medical unit were worse than the police to get out of their clutches. Said they were acting as though it was a concentration camp”.

In a very sad and tragic irony both Kath and Jock were executed by the Japanese, exactly one week apart; Jock on Singapore Island after he surrendered to the Japanese when his composite unit was overrun on 9th February and Kath at Radji Beach on the 16th February.

Kath wrote many letters and about 20 remain and these give a terrific insight into Kath. They almost ‘bring her alive’. In a letter dated 5 October 1941 Kath compared the airforce people with the slog of the soldiers

‘The RAAF are entirely different to the AIF. Most of them have been here over 12 months and most of the time in Singapore which is certainly a very artificial city. And naturally they adopt some of its atmosphere and some of its eastern flourish. The right wine with right soup and the right soup with the right fish and at the right time, to say nothing of a spray of flowers to act as a guide to your place. And their ability to guide you onto the rarest dishes is as though they have been used to it for years. Their conversation is rare though as they want to live very much for every moment. One lad I met was being instructed to fly a Hudson and his instructor was in the party. The instructor said that when you flew with ‘Jeep the learner’ he always felt that the “Grim Reaper” was in the cockpit. “No” said Jeep “there’s Lady Luck there too, ready to seduce the Grim Reaper”.

‘Rather a naughty story, but subtle I thought. They are bright lads and never let the show have a dull moment. One lad, I’ll never forget him, ordered an Emu for dinner. The poor waiter unabashed said “We haven’t one Sir”. “Well” said Jacko “you should have one”. He said “Sorry sir we did have one but it’s all used” and went on with his job.”

She was missing out on a lot of weddings of her friends in Australia and on 2 November 1941 she wrote

“Can’t bear to think of many more weddings over there without me being present. You had better wait or there will be a fuss”.

In the same letter Kath wrote

“Had a very gay weekend. The Air Force lads who passed through here the previous weekend on the way to Frasers Hill arrived back on Thursday. Bleating that it was too lonely up there. So Pat and I had the job of comforting them.”

At the time of boarding the “SS Vyner Brooke” Kath was aged 31. Along with Winnie May Davis and her very close friend Pat Gunther, she was ordered amongst the various duties of the Australian Army nurses on board, to be responsible for the forward part of the ship (On Radji Beach P148). When the ship was bombed she “… received a nasty shrapnel wound from the bomb that hit aft. Struck in the left hip, she struggled to walk and had to be helped onto the deck by Wilma and Mona…” (ORB, p.154).

When the time came for evacuating the ship and the second lifeboat was being filled with the elderly, mothers and children and the more seriously wounded nurses, Kath Neuss had to be practically carried all the way into the lifeboat (ORB P159). Pat Gunther gave her tin hat to Kath ‘in case she needed to bail water from the lifeboat, saying, ‘we’ll see you on shore’. (Portrait of a Nurse P21) Kath gave her life jacket to Pat. The rest is history; Pat survived as a POW.

Presumably landing on Radji Beach in the lifeboat, Kath was definitely executed by the Japanese on the beach along with the other Australian Army Nurses. Whether she was amongst those told to walk into the water and killed or whether she was amongst the wounded on stretchers brutally bayoneted to death is unclear. She is remembered on the Inverell Roll of Honour and a tree is planted at the RSL branch in Inverell in her memory.

On 7 April 2018 the story of Kath Neuss will be featured in the Last Post Ceremony at the Australian War Memorial.

Principal sources

(1) Letter dated 6 February 1942 from Kath to her sister Jessie (“Jess”)
Family sources and letters from Kath
Public records
On Radji Beach by Ian Shaw
Portrait of a Nurse by Pat Gunther


Kath Neuss as a young nurse in Sydney
Kath Neuss with Lieut Jock Pringle of 2/18th Battalion outside the 2/10th AGH. Both would be executed by the Japanese 7 days apart.
Sister Vivian Bullwinkle

Lieut. Clarice Isobel Halligan - VFX47776

“We must all be prepared to take whatever comes……” (1)

Sister Clarice ‘Clare’ Isobel Halligan, VX 47776, 2/13th Australian General Hospital was born in Ballarat, Victoria on 17 September 1904, the third daughter of Joseph Patrick Halligan and Emily Watson Chalmers, who were married in Ballarat in 1898. They had eight children, the first in 1899 and the eighth in 1918. Clarice was the first of the siblings to die on 16th February 1942 at the age of 37 years.

larice’s father Joseph Patrick Halligan, started work at Ballarat Brewery and left to join Abbotsford Brewery, in Melbourne. The family at that time lived in a lovely Victorian House in the grounds of the Brewery in Abbotsford. Later on, they all moved to Kew.

Joseph rented stables in a back block, where a horse and jinker (2 wheeled cart) were kept for travel around Melbourne and for Joseph to travel to work. The children had a carefree childhood and played down at the Yarra River in Kew where they swam and bought ice cream from a punt on the River. They all went to school in Kew. They also went for escapades into the expansive grounds of the Kew Mental Asylum.

Clarice was a member of the Church of England. She had very strong faith as shown by a life committed to helping others and her work as missionary in New Guinea. She was Confirmed at the Holy Trinity Church in Kew Melbourne on the 5th August 1917 and her Confirmation Certificate is in the possession of her family.

Her family are very fortunate to have many Certificates of her very extensive training as a Nurse, but the oldest record dates to when Clarice was very young; nearly 12 years old. It is a Victorian Education Department Pupil’s Cookery Certificate dated 30th June, 1916. This is for a Six Month Course of Instruction in the Theory and Practice of Elementary Cookery, Richmond, Vic.

Another Certificate is the Australian Nursing Federation Certificate of Registration dated 3 October 1929 Certifying that Clarice Isobel Halligan, has been admitted to Membership of the Australian Nursing Federation as a General Nurse.

Clarice trained at the The Melbourne Hospital and Women’s Hospital Melbourne (combined training school for Nurses). The family have a Certificate dated 3rd October, 1927 certifying that Clarice Isobel Halligan had been trained at these Hospitals for three and a half years in Medical, Surgical and Nursing and six months in Midwifery.

There is also a Record of Service dated 5th June 1928 from the Lady Superintendent of Royal Melbourne Hospital recording that Clarice worked for three and a half years at this hospital in various men’s and women’s, medical, surgical, isolation, eye, ear, nose and throat wards, on day and night duty, in the casualty and out-patient department and in the operating theatres. She also worked in the gynaecological wards at the Women’s hospital. Clarice clearly had much experience.

Other qualifications included

(1) Training in Mothercraft and Infant Welfare required by the Victorian Baby Health Centres Association, qualifying her to take charge of a Baby Health Centre.

(2) Special course of training in Infant Welfare Nursing.

(3) Registration as a Midwife by the Nurses’ Board of South Australia

In 1934 Clarice went to Papua New Guinea as a Missionary and kept a diary but unfortunately only one now remains in the possession of the family. Paper was obviously in short supply in New Guinea and this diary was written in pencil on her brother’s school work book. It is assumed by her family that she may have written many diaries that were mistakenly thrown out by relatives who did not know that diaries were hidden in between school work. The diary starts with DOGURA, PAPUA NEW GUINEA – 31.07.1934 (DIARY and says

“As you probably know I am one of the newer missionaries, having landed in Papua on the last day of July, 1934……”

From Clarice’s Niece Lorraine Curtis “There are five pages in total of this diary and I am more than happy to send copies to anyone who had relatives living over there. (Lorraine Curtis –

From stories related by relatives, Clarice worked in Melbourne for the Grey Sisters, an Order of Anglican Sisters who looked after poor people in Abbotsford. She then went to Neerim South as the Matron of the local hospital, where her parents went to meet the Doctor who was thinking of marrying Clarice. But for one reason or another Clarice’s parents deemed him unsuitable for marriage to their daughter. Something was wrong with his foot; maybe what used to be called a “club foot”!

According to her Record of Service Clarice joined the Australian General Hospital on 20 December 1940 and was allocated to the 7 AGH. She immediately went on leave without pay and returned to duty on 31 January 1941 and was the attached to the Camp Hospital at Seymour Victoria.

On the 11 July 1940 she enlisted in the Australian Army Nursing Service at the Australian Army Medical Corp Depot in William St Melbourne. She sailed on the 30 July 1941 and disembarked at Singapore on the 14 August 19/41. Clarice had wanted to go to the Middle East but ended up in Malaya. Initially Clarice was seconded with 10 other Nurse to the 2/10th Australian General Hospital at Malacca in Malaya.

Clarice returned to the 2/13th Australian General Hospital that was initially located at St Patrick’s School on Singapore Island. Between 21-23 November 1941 the entire hospital was moved across the Straits to Tampoi Hill on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. Due however, to the swift progress of the Japanese invasion force, most of the hospital staff was evacuated back to Singapore in late January 1942.

With the 65 other Australian Nurses Clarice was on board the SS Vyner Brooke when it was bombed by the Japanese and sunk on 14 February 1942. Clarice was badly injured by a bomb blast at the same time as Rosetta Wight and both

“ … suffered deep shrapnel wounds to the back of their thighs and buttocks, wounds that penetrated to the bone …. Partially in shock and bleeding profusely, both women were unable to move …”(p.153, On Radji Beach).

Fellow nurses helped her up to the deck and into what would be the second lifeboat to be launched. This lifeboat however overturned as it hit the sea and throwing out most of its passengers out ( p.160, On Radji Beach). Nevertheless, Clarice managed to hold onto the upturned craft. She must have been in excruciating pain for many hours before the sea currents eventually washed the upturned lifeboat and its survivors ashore at one end of Radji.

Clarice’s wounds, whilst bad, were apparently not quite as severe as those of the other two wounded nurses and she was “… able to walk and simply needed some stitching and some medication to be guaranteed a full recovery …” ( p.199-200, On Radji Beach). But there is no doubt that she would have been in agony as she managed to make the journey along the coast to where the first lifeboat had lit a bonfire.

Clarice would have been in real pain during the next two days until the time the Japanese troops arrived at Radji beach. The soldiers proceeded to execute firstly the officers and serviceman and then the crew and civilian men on the beach before in an unbelievable act of totally senseless brutality they lined up the nurses near the waters edge. Clare and the other wounded nurses were on the left of the line facing out to sea. The soldiers opened fire with their machine gun.

Thus ended the life of a woman in the prime of life who had been dedicated to caring for others in pain and suffering.

One the final entries on Clarice’s Offical Record states

“Deceased whilst POW. Executed by Japanese”

An example of the impact on families of the uncertainty of their loved one’s fate can be seen in letters on Clarice’s file and her Officiers Record of Service at the Australian War Memorial Canberra. Clarice died in February 1942 and it was not until September/October 1945 that her death could be really confirmed, following the release of the surviving 24 Nurses from captivity as POWs. Prior to that the Nurses were ‘presumed killed’ which still gave their families some hope that they were alive.

On 2 September 1944 Clarice’s mother wrote to the Army for “a Certificate, or otherwise a statement of authortity” to enable her to sell Clarice’s car. Further correspondance followed and the Army thought her mother wanted a Death Certificate. But her mother wrote on 28 September that

“We don’t wish to apply for a Certificate of Death …… we still have some hope that our daughter may still be alive.”

How sad are those words and any slender hope would be shattered 12 months later.

Undoubtedly, similar sentiments were being experienced by the families of the other 41 Nurses from the SS Vyner Brooke who died during or after the sinking, were executed on Radji Beach, or died whilst a Prisoner of War of the Japanese. And we should not forget the anguish and uncertainty of the familes of the Nurses who did return home.

Principal Sources

(1) Letter from Clarice to her parents, written shortly after the war started.
– My story of Aunt Clarice Isobel Halligan by her Niece Lorraine Curtis
– On Radji Beach by Ian Shaw
– Michael Pether Researcher and Historian Auckland New Zealand
– Public records

Halligan, Clarice

Joseph McInerney

On 21 February 1862 my 2x great grandfather’s turbulent life came to a tragic end when he died in horrific circumstances.

Joseph Mcinerney was born circa 1808 in Tipperary, Ireland to Stephen McInerney and Bridget Foley. At the age of 20 Joseph was convicted with his brother Patrick on a charge of manslaughter. The McInerney brothers were found guilty and transported for the term of their natural lives to New South Wales. They sailed per Eliza II, arriving on 20 June 1829. Joseph McInerney was noted as a labourer before transportation. He was 5’ 3 ¾” tall, had light brown hair and dark grey eyes. His right little finger was crooked at the last joint and he had a scar over the corner of his left eye. Joseph was allocated convict number 1189.

Joseph was assigned to work for George Wyndham at Wallis Plains in Maitland in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales. As recorded on the Australian Dictionary of Biography, “George Wyndham (1801-1870), farmer, wine-grower and pastoralist, was born at Dinton, Wiltshire, England, arriving in Australia in 1827. He settled near Branxton in the Hunter River valley, naming his property Dalwood, and began experimental farming. Among crops mentioned in his diary for 1830 were maize, wheat, hemp, mustard, castor oil, tobacco, millet and cape barley. He also planted a vineyard and began wine-making, in which he had long been interested.” His vineyard was to become the respected Wyndham Estate. George Wyndham was also a magistrate in Maitland. He was assigned many convicts. Notably, “he was respected for his leniency to assigned servants in his earlier days, and was himself a hard worker in the field.”

Joseph was granted a ticket of leave on 7 February 1843, but had to remain in the district of Maitland. Joseph received a second ticket of leave passport on 16 December 1845 so that he could travel to the New England district for 12 months, to continue with his sheep shearing work. Joseph received a conditional pardon on 31 December 1847, meaning that he was free to travel around the colony but was unable to return to Great Britain or Ireland.

By 1850 Joseph had relocated to Victoria. On 6 May 1850 Joseph McInerney married Ellen Connors, an Irish Famine Orphan at St Francis Church, Melbourne. Joseph and Ellen began their married life living in Brunswick, where their two eldest children were born. Johanna McInerney was born in 1853; the birth of Joseph Henry McInerney was in 1855. On 5 September 1855 Joseph reported to police the theft of his brown mare. At the time, he stated his address to be Philipstown, Brunswick.

Joseph and Ellen moved to the Castlemaine district where Joseph was employed by Cornish and Bruce, building the Sandhurst railway line. On 4 May 1858 William Cornish and John Bruce won the tender of £3,356,937 to build a double-track railway from Footscray to Bendigo. Cornish and Bruce employed more than 6000 men, and became unscrupulous in their profit making endeavours. They exploited the unemployment in the colony with their irregular payments, attempts to reduce wages, and methods of subcontracting. Even before any work started, they attempted to subcontract thousands of non-union English workmen. Strikes and demonstrations were frequent throughout the build. In November 1860, Bruce forced the powerful Stonemason’s Society to agree to his terms, when he brought 400 German masons to the colony to compete with them. In 1861 the protesting led to violence after Bruce reduced all wages by 2s. per day. Rioting workmen smashed machinery, assaulted overseers and made three attempts to derail trains.

More children were born to Joseph and Ellen in the Chewton district, however the only birth registered was for Bridget ‘McInerny’. Her birth was in 1858 at Forest Creek, which is near Chewton. We can presume that Catherine McInerney was born in October 1859, although her birth registration has not been located. Catherine’s death registration states that she died on 22 February 1860 at Chewton, aged five months.   Another child’s death was registered in 1861. Recorded as Johanna ‘McInnerney’, it was stated that she was three years old, so presumably born in 1858. Possibly this is the same child as Bridget (who was born in 1858) or perhaps Bridget and Johanna were twins. There is no death registered for a Bridget McInerney prior to Joseph’s death in 1862.

Joseph didn’t see the fruits of his labour. The railway line to Castlemaine was opened on 15 October 1862. However Joseph was killed at work at The Junction on 21 February 1862 by falling earth. He had been standing between a fifteen feet high cutting and some wagons. Without warning, earth and stones fell from above, and he was crushed beneath the rubble. Despite his fellow workers digging him out quickly, the post-mortem showed that he would have died instantly. The bones of his chest were completely crushed and it was concluded that no action could have saved his life. Ellen’s testimony at the Coroner’s Inquest was as follows:

“I am the wife of deceased and live at The Junction. He is my husband and was a labourer on the Railway. He is an Irishman and born at Tipperary. I have two children alive and four dead. I know nothing about the accident. Deceased was brought home dead.”

Joseph McInerney was buried at Chewton cemetery.

Joseph and Ellen’s marriage lasted less than 12 years. In that time, they had 6 children, but only two of these children lived to adulthood.   By the age of 28, Ellen had presumably lost both of her parents, four of her babies, and then her husband!

The Mug Shot

Alphonese Bertillon (1853-1914) was a French police officer and biometrics researcher. He created a system of physical measurements that he teamed with photography to identify recidivist criminals. Bertillon is accredited as the inventor of the mug shot. He believed that our ear shape was a unique identifier. The argument was that men could grow a beard to obscure their chin, but they can’t change the contours of their ear. We are all familiar with the dual photos of the modern mugshot – a side and front profile view of the offender. 
Limited photography of criminals began soon after portrait photos were developed in the 1840’s. At Pentridge Prison, the practice of photographing prisoners who were serving a sentence of six months or longer commenced during the 1870’s. The Parisian Police adopted Bertillon’s techniques in 1883 – nine years before the first crime was solved by the identification of fingerprints. 
Fingerprinting of Francesca Rojas in 1892 in Argentina lead to her confession to the brutal murder of her two children – as her boyfriend didn’t like them. She was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Alphonese’s sense of humour can be seen from the mug shots he took of his son (or nephew – arguments abound over the internet as to the true relationship to Francois Bertillon). Images have been preserved of Francois in mug shot formation, newborn, again in August 1892 which was likely to have been his 1st birthday, and famously in October 1893. 
Alphonese’s own “mug shot” was taken on 22 August 1900.

"No person can tell what he will do when driven by hunger."

Alexander Pearce (1790-1824) has become infamous as the only man to escape from Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour on two occasions. In both instances he entered the wilderness with fellow convicts, and in both instances he was the only man to survive the ordeal.

Pearce was executed on Monday 19 July 1824 in front of a vocal crowd at Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land after being found guilty of the murder of Thomas Cox on 16 November 1823. Both men were convicts to the relatively new penal settlement and one would expect that the environment was not immune to hardened individuals. Yet this case was unique and shocked the whole nation, as it was the first case of cannibalism to be tried in this young land.

Pearce was born in County Monaghan, Ireland. In 1819 he was sentenced to 7 years transportation for stealing 6 pairs of shoes, arriving in VDL per Castle Forbes. During 1821 Pearce committed four further offences, embezzling poultry, drunkenness, absence from lodgings and stealing a wheelbarrow. For each offence he was punished with lashes – 50 lashes in May, 25 in September, 50 on 26 November, and then just three days later a further 50 lashes. The following year Pearce “absconded into the woods”. Upon capture Pearce was re-transported to the bleak and isolated Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour for a further 7 years.

Six weeks later on 20 September 1822 Pearce and seven other convicts – Thomas Bodenham, Edward Brown, Alexander Dalton, Robert Greenhill, William Kennerly, John Mather and Matthew Travers – escaped from the penal station. However after 15 days the eight escapees were starving in the wilderness. The exact sequence of events that were to follow is not known. Pearce was the only man to live to tell the story – however he did so on three occasions, and each version had inconsistencies from the preceding account.

It seems as though it was Greenhill who touted the idea of sacrificing one man so that the others may live. Whether straws were drawn or Greenhill took it upon himself to take his axe to a fellow escapee, is not clear. There was also inconsistencies in Pearce’s confessions as to who was actually killed first – Bodeham or Dalton. However he declared that all men were required to feast upon their prey, to ensure that all were implicated in any repercussions.

Brown, Kennerly and one other convict immediately fled the group, yet only Brown and Kennerly returned to Macquarie Harbour. Dalton (or was it Bodeham) supposedly died of exhaustion on the journey. Brown and Kennerly were in a dire state and unable to provide details to the authorities. They both died soon after arrival. Brown’s death occurred on 15 October 1822, whilst Kennerly died four days later.

The murder and devourment of their fellow man had set a terrible chain of events. The four remaining convicts could no longer act as a team to avoid capture and the vital link of trust had been sacrificed. Each man was fearful that he would fall prey as the next meal. John Mather became the second victim to Greenhill’s axe. Alexander Pearce could count himself lucky that fate intervened before he felt the force of Greenhill’s axe.   A snake bit Greenhill’s ally, Matthew Travers. Whilst Greenhill initially attempted to assist him whilst he recovered, it became evident that Travers would not recover. Five days after the snake bite Greenhill killed him and he and Pearce feasted.

With just Pearce and Greenhill remaining, tensions ran high. Greenhill was in possession of the axe, so Pearce was fearful of falling asleep to never wake up. Pearce managed to stay awake longer than Greenhill. Pouncing on his opportunity, Pearce grabbed the axe and killed Greenhill so that he may eat again.

One hundred and thirteen days after his escape, Pearce was captured along with two bushrangers. Pearce confessed his cannibalism to Reverend Robert Knopwood. However this crazed confession was not believed and Pearce was returned to Macquarie Harbour. The premise was that the other escaped convicts were still roaming the wilderness as bushrangers.

Pearce made a second escape from Macquarie Harbour within a year of his return. With him was a young convict named Thomas Cox. Ten days later Pearce surrendered. Food was found in his pockets, but damningly his pockets also contained parts of Cox’s flesh. The following day Pearce was ordered to travel with a party to retrieve Cox’s body. It was reported, “The head was away, the hands cut off, the bowels were torn out, and the greater part of the breech and thighs gone, as were the calf of the legs, and the fleshy parts of the arms. Witness said to the prisoner, “how could you do such a deed as this?” he answered, “no person can tell what he will do when driven by hunger.” Witness then said, “Where is the head?” the answer was, “I left it with the body.” Witness searched for and found it a few yards off under the shade of a fallen tree; witness then picked up what appeared to be the liver of the deceased, and an axe stained with blood, on which prisoner was asked “if that was the axe with which he had killed Cox,” and he answered, “it was.” The fragments of the body were quite naked; near them were some pieces of a shirt, and the cover of a hat. There had been a fire near the body, and not far from it lay a knife, which witness picked up.”

Pearce was tried at The Supreme Court of Van Diemen’s Land in June 1824. The Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser reported, “The circumstances which were understood to have accompanied the above crime had long been considered with extreme horror. Report had associated the prisoner with cannibals; and recollecting as we did, the vampire legends of modern Greece, we confess, that on this occasion, our eyes glanced in fearfulness at the being who stood before a retributive Judge, laden with the weight of human blood, and believed to have banqueted on human!“

Father Phillip Connolly recited a lengthy statement by Pearce at the gallows. Pearce stated that being overcome with famine he killed Cox whilst he slept.

The Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser reported, “Pearce’s body was, after it had been suspended the usual time, delivered at the Hospital for dissection. We trust these awful and ignominious results of disobedience to law and humanity will act as a powerful caution; for blood must expiate blood! and the welfare of society imperatively requires, that all whose crimes are so confirmed, and systematic, as not to be redeemed by lenity, shall be pursued in vengeance and extirpated with death!”

Meet some "extroadinary" people

An extraordinary case of imposture

Whilst working on the Founders and Survivors project tracing the lives of convicts transported to Tasmania, Australia, l discovered this article printed in The Argus on 4 March 1858, reprinted from the Manchester Guardian:

At the sessions at Stafford, on Thursday an old man named Thomas Beardmore, alias John Mobley, aged 63 years, pleaded guilty to two charges of obtaining money and goods under false pretences at Leek and Stone. The circumstances under which the frauds were practised are so extraordinary that we give a brief outline of the facts, as they would have been more fully disclosed if the charges had been investigated by a jury. The prisoner whose real name is John Mobley, is a native of Weston Turvil, near Aylesbury. For some time he has resorted to a series of impostures, his favorite character being that of a returned convict, and in that personation he was described in the Police Gazette of September 2nd as having imposed upon an old woman, named Hannah Duckworth, near Burnley, Lancashire, by representing himself as her son. At a later date, at Leek, Staffordshire, he represented himself to be a man named Frederick Cox, who had been transported about 19 years’ previously. In consequence of the plausibe tale he told, and his accurate knowledge of events which had transpired before Cox’s transportation he was kept nearly a month at the house of a married daughter of the convict. Cox’s wife, supposing her husband to have been dead, had married again, and, although it is scarcely credible, the silly woman was so convinced that the prisoner was her long-missing partner that she left the man whom she had married, and lived with the prisoner as his wife. He told her that he was possessed of £1,700, part or all of which he had put into the bank; and upon his statement being questioned, he took the daughter of the old woman to the bank, left her at the door, and on returning assured her it was all right, and that he had drawn £150 on account. The same afternoon he accompanied her to several shops in Leek, where he ordered goods; but the deception being shortly afterwards discovered, Beardmore, fearing the consequences, conveyed himself away from the locality. Soon after this he stationed himself at Stone, where he affected an introduction to one Lydia Hawkins, representing that he was her husband, who had been transported 30 years before. The same kind of astonishing credulity which induced Mrs Cox to take him as her husband operated with Mrs Hawkins; and as he told her of the £1,700 he had in the bank, which he had got as a gold-digger, she began to think the lapses of time might have altered his features and appearance, and for the space of five weeks he lived in the house as her husband; during which period she gave him money and articles of clothing. At length, some grave doubts were aroused in her mind as to his identity and the money he professed to have, and finding the place becoming too warm for him he quietly left and did not return. He subsequently palmed off a similar imposition at Tean, where he represented himself to be a returned convict, named Thomas Beardmore, who 25 years previously had been banished from his country, and he so effectually carried out the deception that not only Beardmore’s relatives, but many of the inhabitants, were imposed on, his altered appearance being attributed to the hardships he had undergone. On Friday morning he was brought up again, and sentenced to 12 months imprisonment with hard labour.

Margaret Mannion - was she the most extraordinary of all the convict women?

The Founders and Survivors project allowed various volunteers the opportunity to research the remarkable lives of numerous convicts transported to Van Diemen’s Land. Many of these volunteers became involved as an extension of researching their own convict ancestry. Those who attended the workshops heard from Janet McCalman that we are privileged to be descendants of a convict, as those who produced a family were certainly in the minority. As a researcher, it is always that little bit more exciting to come across a convict who married and bore children, as this allows us to unearth a grander picture of what their life may have been like, and also, because we know that they are simply one of the few extraordinary convicts who produced survivors.

In my role as a checker of submissions, l was introduced to Margaret Mannion. If the convicts who produced a family were extraordinary, then Margaret was the most incredible of them all. Margaret was transported to Australia aboard the Duke of Cornwall in 1850. This ship transported two hundred female adults and thirty-two children who embarked at Kingston, Ireland from Grange Gorham Penitentiary. The surgeon stated in his journal that “about two-thirds of the convicts were between the ages of twenty and thirty and having been brought up in the country were generally of sound and healthy constitutions. Many of them had been driven to commit offences during the Famine in Ireland, who originally had very good character, when once convicted they were certain of being well fed and taken care of. The remaining third were principally from Dublin and the provincial Towns. Their constitutions were more or less injured by previous disease and intemperate and irregular habits. Being a highly susceptible race they suffered much at first from Grief and depossession of Spirits on leaving their friends and Mother Country.”

Margaret was born in Galway in 1834. She was convicted with her sister Bridget for stealing three cows, and at the age of 16, arrived in Van Diemen’s Land. The four foot 10 inch freckled face illiterate girl, seemed to settle into convict life without any major indiscretions. Records tell us that thirteen months after her arrival, Margaret applied to marry Patrick Mullins per Portenia. Permission was approved, but for whatever reason, the marriage did not eventuate. Just five months later, on 23 April 1852, Margaret applied to marry a free man named Manuel Columbia. This request was not approved.

Undeterred in her quest to find a companion, the records for Permission to Marry, as digitized on the Tasmanian Archives website, show us that Margaret made another request to marry on May 1, 1854. On this occasion, permission was granted to marry the free man, James Mullins. James had arrived per Atlas in 1833. He was transported under a life sentence, but received a conditional pardon on 15 January 1846. It was noted on the permission to marry that Margaret and James married on 29 May 1854. Confirmation of the marriage was also noted on Margaret’s conduct record.

I was introduced to Margaret through a submission made by a descendant, which claimed that she married Thomas Larkin per Blenheim 4, at St Josephs Roman Catholic Church in Hobart Town on 27 November 1854. A record for the permission to marry is the fourth to be indexed on the Tasmanian Archives website, for Margaret Mannion per Duke of Cornwall. This marriage is also recorded on Margaret’s conduct record.

The union of Margaret and Thomas Larkin produced six children over a twelve year period. The first child, James Larkin, was born on 25 June 1854, five months prior to his parent’s marriage. Other children were born in July 1856, August 1858, March 1861, December 1863 and August 1866.

Of course, the question remained, what happened to Margaret’s first husband, James Mullins, and was James Mullins actually the father of James Larkin? A search for the death of James Mullins was necessary. Whilst l was unable to confirm a death for James, evidence showed that he and Margaret produced a family of four children. Their births were in April 1855, July 1859, October 1861 and April 1864. This information confirmed the superwoman status of Margaret, and the records would show that not only was she a bigamist, but she had super powers which enabled her to produce babies with two men at the same time!

So was Margaret really the most extraordinary convict to be sentenced to Van Diemen’s Land? Surely there was a mistake somewhere. The descendent who composed the submission on Founders and Survivors, claimed that she knew nothing of James Mullins. She also recorded Margaret’s death as occurring on 31 October 1867; however, the conduct record lists further offences, dating up to 6 May 1879. Interestingly, these offences were for Margaret Mullins!

I decided to check the Female Convicts Research Centre website. Here l found that Margaret had another descendant who was interested in researching her life; however this descendant claimed to have been part of the line from James Mullins.

As there was only one convict woman named Margaret Mannion, the mystery deepened. There were spelling variations to Margaret’s maiden name, when registering the births of her children. The first child born to Thomas Larkin showed the mother’s name as Margaret Mannian. The registration of the remaining five children showed their mother’s name as Margaret Manning. The four children born to James Mullins also showed the mother’s name as Margaret Manning. Further investigation of the original records for the women per Duke of Cornwall enabled me to restore Margaret Mannion to the category of “extraordinary convict” rather than “most extraordinary convict”.

It would seem that Margaret Mannion was confused for Margaret Mongan, who was also transported on the Duke of Cornwall. It was Margaret Mongan who married James Mullins. Like Margaret Mannion, Margaret Mongan was born in Galway, although she was five years older. The similarities did continue. Both women were illiterate and both were convicted of stealing cows. To complicate matters even more, there were actually two women named Margaret Mongan transported per Duke of Cornwall. The other was also aged 20 years and from County Galway, but she was transported for killing sheep.

There were over 70,000 convicts transported to Van Dieman’s Land. We have inherited a library of meticulously recorded details about these founders of Tasmania. With so much information available to today’s researchers and genealogists, we must be forgiving of the rare errors made by the scribes. Margaret Mannion was one of the extraordinary convict women who not only was a founder, but also became a survivor – but she was unable to sustain the title of being superwoman, and of being the most extraordinary of all convicts.

Captain Moonlite

On 20 January 1880 Andrew George Scott (1842-1880), alias Captain Moonlite, was hanged at Darlinghurst Prison, Sydney.

Born in County Down Ireland, Scott travelled to New Zealand with his clergyman father, mother and brother in 1861. Scott arrived in Australia in 1867, moving from Sydney to Melbourne before being appointed as the lay reader at the Church of Holy Trinity in Bacchus Marsh Victoria in July 1868.
In March 1869 Scott, disguised in a mask and cloak, robbed his friend L.J. Brunn, the manager of the London Chartered Bank at Egerton. Scott forced Brunn to write a note saying, “Captain Moonlite has stuck me up and robbed the bank.” Scott then signed the note as “Captain Moonlite”. No one would believe Brunn’s accusations that the preacher robbed the bank, and instead, Brunn and the local schoolteacher were arrested. Scott made haste from the Victorian goldfields and returned to Sydney. Being the main witness to the robbery, the police were forced to release Brunn and Simpson after Scott’s departure.
Meanwhile, Scott spent his “earnings” purchasing a boat and commenced to sail to the South Pacific. However his purchase was made with a bad cheque. Scott was captured and sentenced to 18 months gaol at Darlinghurst Prison.
Upon release Scott was immediately arrested for the Egerton bank robbery and transferred to the new Ballarat Gaol to await trial. However the walls of the gaol were not secure enough to restrain Scott. Scott made a hole in the wall to the next cell and with his neighbour, they managed to overpower a guard and release all other prisoners. The prisoners then made a rope by tying their blankets together and scaled the perimeter wall. Upon capture Scott was sentenced to 10 years on the roads on 23 July 1872. He received an early release on 18 March 1879.
Eight months later on 18 November 1879 Captain Moonlite lead a pack of bushrangers to hold up the Wantabadgery station near Wagga Wagga, NSW. Over the ensuing three days they captured and robbed all who passed by, holding over 30 people prisoner. When one prisoner managed to escape to alert the police, a shoot out ensued. Two gang members Gus Wreneckie and James Nesbitt were killed, as was a policeman, Constable Bowen. With his situation futile, Scott eventually surrendered and along with his gang was charged with the murder of Constable Bowen. Scott and a gang member Rogan were hanged together on 20 January 1880.
Andrew Scott’s dying wish was realised in January 1995 when his remains were exhumed and reinterred next to Nesbitt’s grave in Gundagai.

Baby Farming in 19th Century Melbourne

Whilst undertaking a brick wall research project into the early life of AIF digger Ralph Phillips, l was confronted with the term “baby farming” and was introduced to Emma Parry. 

Emma was born c1811 in Suffolk, England.  She arrived in Australia as Emma Ames with her 13-year-old son Frederick Charles Ames and 11-year-old daughter Emma Ames.  The bereaved family departed Plymouth per Eliza on 30 November 1852, arriving in Portland Bay, Victoria on 9 April 1853.  It had been a perilous journey with 41 of the 330 passengers dying during the voyage, primarily due to an outbreak of measles.  After disembarking, Emma was hired on 15 April by M Cameron of Portland on a six-month contract for £30 with rations. 

By 1879 Emma Ames was known as Emma Parry, a widow residing at 116 Kerr Street Fitzroy. From 1887 Emma Parry resided at Edina Cottage, 10 King William Street, Fitzroy where she practiced as a nurse.  Like many other older women residing in the inner suburbs of Melbourne, Emma carried on a business as an accoucheuse.  The press referred to these private lying-in-hospitals as ‘baby farms’.  Emma’s reputation as a “philanthropist” amongst “distressed females” seeking a venue to be confined, and / or a house for their baby to be reared or adopted, was to become widespread knowledge to the broader Victorian community in December 1889.  Numerous newspapers reported on the activities at Edina Cottage. 

The Age disclosed that on the evening of Saturday 7 December a poorly dressed girl aged about 16 or 17 arrived at Mrs. Parry’s front door holding a bundle in her arms, explaining, “The little girl had taken very bad”.  When Mrs. Parry enquired of the symptoms, the response was that she didn’t know, but her sister who was outside could answer.  “In a trice Mrs. Parry’s mysterious caller had vanished through the front door” leaving her with the infant in her arms.  Unable to find the girls outside, Mrs. Parry realized that she had been tricked by a clever ruse to accept the unknown baby.  Mrs. Parry went straight to the Fitzroy watch house to inform the police of the incident.  However as abandoned children are entrusted into the care of a capable nurse, the police sent Mrs. Parry home with the baby girl, estimated to be six or seven weeks old.  The following day whilst nursing the baby, Mrs. Parry noticed some symptoms of twitching so she administered a few drops of brandy and water, and the baby fell into a calm and peaceful sleep.  However by evening the baby suffered a fit of mild convulsions.  After giving the baby a warm bath, Mrs. Parry ordered a lodger, Margaret Smyth, to take it to Dr. Fyffe.  Upon return, Mrs. Parry administered the prescribed medicine, along with three drops of cough mixture in warm water, believing she had noticed signs of a cold.  The baby appeared to progress favorably until two days later.  On the Monday evening the baby suffered another fit and died in convulsions.  Dr. Fyffe signed a death certificate, however the police considered the circumstances to be unusual, and directed the death to the coroner to conduct a post-mortem examination.  Dr. Henry Maudsley performed this procedure and concluded, “The body was emaciated.  The posterior parts of both lungs were congested.  Death was attributable to inflammation of the stomach and intestines, arising from improper feeding.”  He explained that the observed convulsions were merely symptoms of the diseased state of the intestines.”

Dr Youl conducted an inquest at the city morgue on 17 December 1889.    Evidence was heard that Louisa Thorn had answered an advertisement to adopt a child from Emma Parry in November.  She claimed to have followed instructions to feed the child on Swiss milk.  After a fortnight the child became ill so Thorn took it to Dr. Lawrence, who deposed the child was suffering from vomiting and diarrhoea produced by unsuitable food.  Louisa Thorn subsequently returned the child to Mrs. Parry.  Mrs. Marion Clarke, deputy register of South Fitzroy, testified of her concern of the death of an illegitimate child at Mrs. Parry’s residence 12 months ago from marasmus and collapse.  She stated the deaths of five other infants at the same address had been registered during the year, all from the same cause, except one that was stillborn.  In examination, Emma Parry stated 12 or 13 children passed through her hands over the previous year.  She stated she was known for providing a good home for children.  Over the past 12 months, five or six had died, their mothers had taken some away, and three or four had been adopted.  Evidence was also heard from Georgina Kiddell who lived with her father at Moolart.  She had been confined five times at Mrs. Parry’s, her father making the arrangements for her under the assumed name of ‘Mrs. Bath’.  The first child died at 10 days, the second was adopted the day following its birth, the third and fourth were also adopted.  Georgina paid £5 and £6 fee to the adopted parents.  The fifth child had died.  The Coroner stated, “The matter was a very serious one because a large number of infants were received at the house, and there was very little evidence to show what became of them.  Whilst evidence was heard that many respectable people had adopted babies, neither the mothers of the children nor the proprietor of the house were able to tell where any of them had gone to.”  After a short deliberation the jury delivered their verdict as follows: — “In Fitzroy, on the 9th of December instant, the deceased, Jessie Thorn, died of marasmus from improper and unsuitable food. The jury are of opinion that such houses as that kept by Mrs. Parry should be placed under proper supervision and that proper books be kept of all confinements occurring in them.”

One month later, Louisa Thorn of Rae Street Fitzroy appeared at the Fitzroy Police Court charged with making a false declaration to the deputy registrar of BDM.  Louisa had registered the birth of Jessie Grace Thorn, born 1 August 1889 listing herself as mother, rather than declaring that the child was adopted.  Louisa Thorn was sentenced to one month’s imprisonment at Castlemaine Gaol.

Janet McCalman’s comprehensive study of the Melbourne Lying in Hospital (later to be named the Royal Women’s Hospital) traced the registered live births at the hospital between 1857 and 1900 until death.  Janet revealed an incredibly high infant mortality rate, with 50% of the babies dying before their first birthday.  Of these, 15% had died before 28 days.  For approximately two decades the press had been reporting about “baby farming” nurses such as Emma Parry.     Janet states “the actual murderers among the baby farmers – i.e. women who took in babies for money – were few, but we found that there was an ancient practice of allowing babies to fade away.”  During “the 1880s mortality in LIH babies who were illegitimate reached 80%.  Since they were hand fed and artificial feeding was so unsafe, they faded away from constant gastro and marasmus.  The Infant Life Protection Act dramatically reduced this mortality by policing the private nursing industry fiercely.”

Public concern about the fate of infants increased and ultimately contributed to The Infant Life Protection Act 1890. The legislation was an attempt to regulate the private nurses and their residential establishments.  It empowered police to control the paid children’s nurses and granted them the authority to inspect homes.  Registration was required by all who nursed or maintained infants less than two years of age ‘for the purpose of maintaining such infant for a longer period than three consecutive days’ or ‘for the purpose of adopting such infant’.  The Act was also intended to regulate the work of people who brokered adoptions by taking charge of surrendered infants and matching them with adoptive parents for a fee.  Nurses and possible unscrupulous midwives quickly learnt how to play the new system.  The Royal Children’s Hospital provided official feeding instructions, and registered private nurses would ensure that these were prominently displayed when their premises were inspected.  Those that did end up in court would often recite the instructions as part of their defence.

By 1892 Emma Parry had relocated her residence and business to 8 Duckett Street, Brunswick.  Despite a change of venue, it would seem that the activities continued as they did in Fitzroy, with more births, adoptions and deaths.  On 16 April 1892 Dr Neild, acting coroner, conducted an inquest at the Court House Hotel, Brunswick into the death of Florence Zimmerman.  Florence was born to Janet Zimmerman at the Women’s Hospital on 23 December 1891 and was nursed for two months at North Melbourne.  Mrs. Elizabeth Ryan took charge of Florence Zimmerman on 9 January, receiving 10s per week for its care from Janet.  The baby was thriving until 13 February when Florence was “seized with vomiting”.  Mrs. Ryan took Florence to Dr. Peacock who prescribed medicine and cured the illness. Janet Zimmerman answered an advertisement by Emma Parry on 22 March 1892.  Mrs. Parry agreed to adopt the child if paid £5, declaring she would take good care of it and would permit Janet to see it at any time.  Mrs. Ryan attested that Florence was healthy when the baby left her care on 24 March.  Sergeant Brown deposed that Emma Parry called into the police station on 11 April to report the death of the child the previous day.  Emma Parry claimed she had called Dr Miller to see the child on 9 April, which had been well up until then.  Dr. Neild claimed there were other cases in the district where children died in mysterious circumstances, despite no apparent criminal intention.  He attributed most of these cases to ignorance, predominately arising from feeding unsuitable and indigestible food.  It was attested that Emma Parry accepted money to take possession of Florence Zimmerman into her home, which was described as “a filthy, frowsy house not fit for pigs or vagrant dogs to live in.  In three weeks a strong, healthy, stout child, apparently likely to live, became a living skeleton, with not a shred of food in its body.”  The Jury found Florence Zimmerman died of starvation and neglect wilfully caused by Emma Parry.  They declared Emma to be guilty of wilful murder.   The Coroner Dr. Neild agreed with the jury that Florence Zimmerman had been deliberately starved to death, and committed Emma Parry for trial. Emma received the verdict with intense surprise, moaning she had cared for the dear child day and night.

Emma Parry’s trial was held on 26 April 1892 at the Criminal Court.   Emma’s defence was that the baby died from an inability to assimilate its food.  However the prosecutor’s argument that Florence Zimmerman was starved to death prevailed, and 79-year-old Emma Parry was found guilty of manslaughter.  She was sentenced to nine months hard labour.  Upon being received at Melbourne Gaol it was discovered that Emma’s right thighbone was fractured, the result of falling down stairs at her home in Brunswick.  She was admitted to the Gaol Hospital, rather than the prisoner cells.  Emma’s nine-month sentence became a life sentence upon her death in the gaol hospital at 10pm on Wednesday 13 July 1892.  Dr Youl conducted an inquest at Melbourne Gaol on 15 July.  Evidence was heard from Dr. Shields that death resulted from old age and debility.  Coronial findings declared ‘death by natural causes’.

The term “baby farming’ conjures images of unspeakable evil and cruelty.  However to believe that the nurses were trying to help single pregnant young girls and / or find suitable homes for illegitimate and unwanted babies, is just too simplistic.  The clientele of lying in hospitals and private nurses were predominately highly vulnerable women disempowered by poverty.  Desperate single women who without family support had no option but to part with their baby whilst they tried to earn a living.  These social conditions created a market for private nurses / baby farming to develop, which in turn attracted both professionally trained nurses and incompetent rogues.  However regardless of the level of training and experience, today we can question the likelihood of any well intentioned nurse and her ability to rear children who were prematurely weaned and relied on artificial feeding.  In addition, we need to recognise the issues associated with poor sanitary conditions and the enviable task of nursing babies suffering with diseases and possibly weakened by syphilis.

It is worth mentioning that Frances Knorr aka Minnie Thwaites was the only Melbourne woman to be hanged for activities relating to baby farming at various homes in Brunswick and Carlton.  The discovery of three buried babies in backyards of homes where Frances had resided, led to her arrest.  Frances Knorr stated she took children in to nurse, and accounted for their disposal by saying that she had “adopted then out”.   Frances Knorr was tried at the Coroner’s Court on three charges of murder on 25 October 1893 and was found guilty at the Criminal Sittings on 12 November 1893.  She was sentenced to death and hanged by the neck at Melbourne Gaol on 15 January 1894.

Emma Parry
Emma Parry
Frances Knorr

Hangman Jones

Following on from the above information re the execution of Frances Knorr, here lies the information about her intended executioner.

Hangman Jones, proper name William Perrins was born in Worcester, England in 1837. He arrived in Australia in 1858 and six years later married Mary Duffy. The couple produced two daughters, Elizabeth in 1865 at Vaughan and Sarah in 1868 at Ballarat.

By 1872 William Perrins had run foul of the law. He was convicted at Dunolly on 29 July 1872 for using indecent language and committing assault and sentenced to a term of three months imprisonment at Maryborough Gaol. On 19 May 1874 he was sentenced to another term of 3 months imprisonment for assault. Before his release he appeared at the Maryborough Circuit Court on a charge of receiving. Being found guilty he was sentenced to three years hard labour and was transferred to Pentridge Prison. William Perrins was freed by remission on 6 November 1876.

Using the alias of Thomas Jones, William Perrins was convicted again on 15 November 1883 for the indecent assault of a girl under 12 years of age. The charge related to the assault of Amy Simpkins who had been lured from the corner of Collins Street and Russell Street to the Treasury Gardens. Thomas Jones was sentenced to 12 months imprisonment with hard labour at Pentridge, and received a whipping of 12 lashes.

By 1885 Thomas Jones, aka Thomas Walker, aka Thomas Porter, had become the hangman at Pentridge Prison. Having performed 15 executions, Jones was considered to be an expert in the role. Whilst he stated that he “had not a scrap of chivalrous objection to dealing with the condemned person on the score of her sex” (i.e. Frances Knorr) Jones confided to the prison governor that he struggled with the jeers bestowed by acquaintances. Countered with domestic issues which were aggravated by his excessive alcohol intake, it was determined that Jones reside at the gaol in the lead up to the planned execution of Knorr.

The situation obviously was too much for Jones to bear. On 6 January 1894 Jones committed suicide by slitting his throat with a razor. Several deep wounds were inflicted to each side of his neck and upon a medical examination it appeared that Jones had alternated with his right and left hands. Unlike usual suicides where the front of the neck is sliced, Jones exacted deep wounds in the side of his neck where vital points are situated and as such his jugular vein was severed.

In Flanders Fields

The significance of the Red Poppy

The Red Poppy, or Flanders Poppy, has been associated with the World War One battlefields of Europe since 1915.  Canadian doctor Colonel John McCrae immortalized the flower as a symbol of remembrance in honour of his friend and former student.  Lieutenant Alexis Helmer of Ottawa, was killed on 2 May 1915.  In the absence of a chaplain, Colonel McCrae performed Helmer’s funeral ceremony and afterwards penned a poem that has become known as “In Flanders’ Field”.

In the devastation of the battlefields in northern France and Belgium, the Australian diggers would witness the red poppies emerge from the blackened soil.  It was one of only a few plants to grow on the barren battlefields.  According to soldiers’ folklore, the vivid red of the poppy was coloured by the blood of fallen comrades, which had seeped into the ground.

The British Legion adopted the Red Poppy as the Emblem of Remembrance to honour the dead in 1919.  In 1921 the Returned Sailors and Soldiers Imperial League of Australia accepted the international convention to recognize the Poppy of Flanders’ Field to be worn on Remembrance / Armistice Day.

The Powell Family Project

The Powell Family Presentation Folder

I have conducted a Single Line Research Project on the Powell Family. Attached is a photograph of the project folder, which was presented to my client. It includes the family stories, a military report, pedigree chart, Ahnentafel Report, descendant reports, printed pdf media files, a source usage report and bibliography. Below is a brief outline of part of my findings.

William Wall Powell a farmer from Herefordshire brought his wife Alice (nee Stock) and baby daughter Gertrude to Australia in 1875. They arrived in Melbourne on 26 February 1875 as unassisted passengers per Whampoa. The family initially lived in Richmond where another son was born later that year. In April 1882 William became the head trainer of the prestigious Norwood Kennels at Alfred Road, Burwood. William died at the kennels on 30 March 1885, leaving 30 year old Alice to rear five young children aged from 1 to 10 years.

Whilst William died at the relatively young age of 53, his father Thomas, a corn merchant, was to live to 86 years. Thomas was severely impacted by the Corn Laws and was declared bankrupt in 1822. However he turned his life around and sired a large family of nine children. At the time of his death, Thomas had 25 grandchildren; a further eight were born after his death.

Alice Powell remarried at the age of 50, although she separated from her second husband within five years, returning to live with various children for the remainder of her long life. Alice died at the remarkable age of 93 years, as did her youngest daughter. Her father, Charles Stock, a yeoman and prominent resident of Foy, Herefordshire, died age 90 years.

Various men from the Powell and Stock families enlisted to serve their country during both peace and wartime. Of particular note were the Jakeman brothers, Charles James Jakeman and George Harold Jakeman who were grandsons of Charles Stock. Their parents had immigrated from Herefordshire, England to Kansas, USA in 1880. On 13 January 1886 they arrived in New South Wales, Australia.

George enlisted for service during the Boer War in 1902, under the alias of Robert Harman. He arrived in South Africa too late to participate in any action. At the age of 31 George enlisted in the First AIF, as did his older brother Charles. Whilst being allocated to different units, both Jakeman brothers departed Alexandria to join the MEF on the same date, arriving at Gallipoli on 16 August 1915. Charles was killed in action just six days later.

George survived the Gallipoli campaign being a party to the final evacuation in January 1916. Two months later he was re-allocated from 20 Battalion to 51 Field Ambulance and was sent to the Western Front. George was awarded the prestigious Military Medal for bravery in the field on the night of 5th / 6th May. He was gassed in August 1918, spending five weeks recuperating. After three years of service in France, George embarked for England on 9 January 1919. George returned to Australia per Commonwealth and disembarked in Sydney on 12 June 1919. He was discharged fully fit on 17 January 1920.

Arthur Herbert Jakeman, the third son of George Harold Jakeman attested for the Australian Army on 17 January 1941. Arthur was sent abroad arriving in Malaya on 16 August 1941. On 23 September 1941 he was declared ‘missing”. Arthur had been captured by the Japanese and held as a prisoner of war. He was at interred at Changi Camp for 3 years and 5 months. Arthur was liberated from this camp on 5 September 1945, almost four years after his capture. It must have been an enormous relief for his wife Jessie and their two children, but also for his father George, to see Arthur disembark at Sydney on 9 October 1945.

Charles Livingston / Lucas

The photo at right is of my 2 x great grandfather – Charles Lucas.  He was a difficult man to trace, as he was fallacious in providing details when registering births of his daughters.  It was only after discovering his Victorian prison record, of which this photo was attached, that clues were gleaned to unearth his true identity.  These clues ultimately led to Charles Livingston, the VDL convict per Lord Petre.

Charles Livingston was convicted on 24 October 1842 at the Liverpool Borough of Quarter Sessions Court, Lancaster, for breaking into a house with two others and stealing 31 pairs of boots and 15 pairs of shoes.  He was found guilty and sentenced to 10 years transportation to Van Diemen’s Land.  Charles could read and write and he was considered to be “intelligent”.   Along with only seven others from the total of 238 convicts per Lord Petre, Charles was deemed by the ship’s surgeon to be “monitor of a class very good indeed”.  Despite being able to charm the ship surgeon, within the convict system Charles was a constant offender, his behavior being reactive and violent.  He was reprimanded with periods in solitary confinement and with hard labour.  On 28 January 1851 Charles received his Ticket of Leave, on condition that he did “not reside in Hobart Town or Fingal district”.

Charles Livingston married an Irish convict woman named Mary Sullivan on 10 May 1852 in Franklin.  Mary Sullivan, whose proper name was Mary Leary, was convicted at County Cork on 28 December 1848, for stealing a shirt.  She was transported per Australasia.  Charles and Mary had three Tasmanian born daughters between 1853 and 1857.

After freedom Charles struggled to remain on the right side of the law.  In 1854 he was fined £50 for sly grog selling.  This was a substantial sum – equating to approximately $7000 in today’s money.  It is not surprising that the following year Charles was declared insolvent when his saw-milling establishment at Huon went bankrupt.  Charles attempted to establish another timber dealership at Bruny Island in 1858, but again, he was forced to declare insolvency.  In April 1859 Charles was in court charged with stealing a square stern boat on January 15.

Presumably on the run, Charles relocated his pregnant wife and three daughters to Victoria, and the family assumed the surname of “Lucas”.  Three more daughters were born in Victoria, the first in March 1860.  The following month Charles was charged with stealing two pairs of boots.  On this occasion he was lucky to be dismissed with a caution.  Charles wasn’t so lucky in 1862 when he was charged at Castlemaine with receiving stolen property.  He received a sentence of three years on the roads.  On 1 December 1865 Charles was convicted of cattle stealing at Ballarat, his sentence being five years imprisonment.  Charles was sentenced to a further period of three years on the roads on 22 July 1872, for once again receiving stolen property.  Charles was finally released from Pentridge Prison on 29 May 1875.

After more than nine years of living alone as a single parent, it is thought that Mary was reluctant to allow Charles back into her life.  Whilst Charles was in prison, Mary gave birth to two daughters alone.  One of these daughters was to die in horrific circumstances aged 17 months.  Susan Lucas had stumbled into the open fire in her mother’s hut, and the kettle of boiling water toppled and scalded her. 

Four years after his release from Pentridge, Charles Lucas died at the copper mining town of Cobar, NSW on 29 December 1879.  According to his death certificate, Charles died from an “overdose of morphine administered by own hand”.  Despite an inquest being conducted one day after Charles died, his actual death certificate was not signed until 6 March 1880 – over two months after his death.  As was the case throughout his life, it seems fitting that after his death, anomalies still continued. 

The Ballarat Benevolent Asylum

On 6 September 2011 l began trawling through the ledgers of the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum hoping to identify any inmates who were VDL convicts.  Over 150 convicts who had travelled to the goldfields after the expiration of their sentence were ultimately identified.  As  the ledgers did not specifically note convict origins or ships to the colony, it was a painstaking task to unearth the Vandemonians.   Here is the story of two of these men, John Grant and James Charles Gunyon.

On 30 November 1857, a meeting was held at the Council Chambers in Sturt Street, Ballarat.  Mr. Oddie, the Chairman of Ballarat West, raised the discussion about the many cases of distress within the region, primarily caused by gold field injuries. He proposed the establishment of a benevolent association, and thus, the Ballarat Benevolent and Visiting Society, later to be known as the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum, was formed.  Initially the recipients of aid were visited in their homes, but it was soon realised that an asylum was required.  The Ballarat Benevolent Asylum was officially opened on 20 February 1860.  A study of the ledgers which date from 1860, show that inmates of the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum were not merely the old and infirm, but also those who were able-bodied but destitute.  As Ballarat was a popular destination for many convicts once they received their freedom, it is only natural that this study of the ledgers has unearthed numerous men who had been transported to Van Diemen’s Land.


It would appear that the majority of convicts who spent time at the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum, were either single or widowed men.  One such man was John Grant.  John Grant was born in 1809 at Glasgow, Scotland, the son of a stonemason. John became a soldier with the 42 (The Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot.  However he deserted and upon capture was inflicted with 300 lashes.  This obviously did not deter John from deserting a second time in 1833.  John Grant was captured three years later and tried at the Edinburgh Castle on 15 September 1836.  He was sentenced to 7 years transportation. John was admitted to the prison hulk “Hardy” moored at Portsmouth, on 16 November 1836.  John sailed from Spithead aboard “Sarah”, arriving in Van Diemen’s Land on 29 March 1837.

After spending time at the prisoner barracks in Hobart, John was assigned to Molesworth Jeffrey at New Norfolk in 1838.  A dramatic turn of events changed the fortune of John.  John came upon two bushrangers, James Mackay and William Hill, who were both ex-convicts.  They were wanted for the murder of two other convicts, William Trusson and William Clarke.  John Grant befriended the bushrangers in an attempt to earn their trust, before he and his friends Patrick Riley and Absalom Gomme, overpowered the bushrangers in a capture that was bloodless.  John Grant and his two accomplices received a £500 reward, and more importantly, on 29 April 1842 they each received a free pardon with no conditions.

John left Tasmania for Victoria in 1844.  Whilst his initial whereabouts in Victorian are unknown, he was in the goldfields during the 1860s working as a miner.  At the age of 59 John resided at Hard Hills, Buninyong.  He was admitted to the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum on 24 March 1868 due to the loss of his left foot.  He was discharged almost seven months later on 13 October 1868. John had applied to the House Committee to be transferred to hospital, and whilst the application was successful, he was not admitted. Instead he was supplied with salve and medicine and was informed that he would be treated as an outpatient.

John was readmitted to the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum on 5 July 1870. The ground of application was “loss of left leg”.  He left the asylum on 27 October 1870 as he had gained employment to look after a gold claim.  On 4 April 1871 John returned to the benevolent asylum, remaining there for almost two and a half years.  On 2 September 1873 he gave notice and left for the District Hospital to have his leg further amputated at his own request.  John returned from hospital on 26 January 1874.  The ground of application was recorded as “torsion of the left leg”.  He was discharged on 5 January 1876.  John’s final admittance to the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum was on 4 June 1877, suffering from pneumonia.  He died at 8pm on 22 June 1877, the cause of death being confirmed as pneumonia and exhaustion.


Another convict who relied on the services of the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum was James Charles Gunyon.  James was born on 1 February 1790 at Kitson, Middlesex, England. He became known as Charles.  Charles married Sophia Robinson on 31 October 1815 at St Bride, Fleet Street, London.  Throughout the next 10 years they produced five children.  Charles worked as a waiter at The Swan, Westminster Bridge, whilst Sophia was employed as a housemaid.  Whilst working on 12 August 1827, Sophia found £85 in bank notes, which she promptly slipped into her pocket.  When arriving home, she gave the money to Charles.  This impromptu decision had dramatic consequences for her family.  Sophia and Charles were both arrested and tried at The Old Bailey on 13 September 1827.  Sophia received a death sentence, which was commuted to transportation for life, in consideration of her five children.  Charles was transported for 14 years.

Sophia and her five children sailed to Australia aboard “The Mermaid”, arriving on 27 June 1828.  Charles arrived two months later on 25 August 1828, aboard “Woodford”.  The four older children were placed into the Queen’s Orphan School, but three-year-old Emma was allowed to live with her parents.  A further three children were born between 1830 and 1837.

Charles was appointed a police constable soon after his arrival; however continual instances of being drunk and neglect of duty caused him many penalties.  He was dismissed from his service with the police in December 1831.  His problems persisted and he was punished with fines, hard labour on the Bridgewater chain gang and time on the treadwheel.  His conduct record shows a total of nine offences of drunkenness.

Whilst a record of divorce has not been located, it would appear that Charles and Sophia separated prior to 1844.  When their daughter Emma married in 1844, Sophia signed her name as “Sophia Walker”.  She spent her latter years living with James Walker.  Sophia died on 29 July 1866 at Brighton, Tasmania.  She was buried at Pontville St Marks Anglican Cemetery, Brighton, Hobart.  James Walker died 25 February 1870, and was buried with Sophia.

According to the 1841 Tasmania muster, Charles had received a conditional pardon.  It is thought that he travelled to Victoria in 1847.  Little is known about his time there, however at least in his latter years, Charles worked as a shepherd and lived at Creswick.

Charles arrived at the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum on 1 July 1874.  He was admitted on the grounds that he was old and infirm.  Charles stated that he was 85 years old, native of Barnett, Middlesex, England.  He also stated that he was a widower with six children. It was noted that he was “admitted in a very low and weak state was taken into the hospital ward and never left.”  Charles died at 6am on 27 July 1874.  The cause of death was “ascites and Bronchitis”.  As the main cause of ascites is cirrhosis of the liver, it could be presumed that Charles continued to drink heavily beyond his days of being a convict.

Whilst Charles, Sophia and their elder five children arrived in Australia under duress, it would appear that their descendants adopted a sense of belonging to their homeland. Charles and Sophia had at least eight direct line descendants who responded to the call from their country, and enlisted with the Australian Imperial Forces during World War One.  Of the eight, only five returned from duty.  This included Leslie Ernest Fitzgerald who had been hospitalised after suffering from trench fever; Alfred Edward Jarvis who received a gun shot wound to his knee in France on 9 June 1917; and George Henry Evans who was shot in Belgium in March 1918.  Those that did not return were Tasman Jarvis, who was killed in action at the Gallipoli Peninsula on 25 April 1915; Richard George Jarvis who was also killed in action at Gallipoli in what we now call “Anzac Day”; and Henry Thomas Jarvis who was killed in action on 9 September 1916 at Franc

Ganmain, New South Wales

The venue of my May school holidays to visit my paternal grandparents, aunts, uncle and cousins.

Check out the facebook page Historic Ganmain to see some wonderful photos and read stories about this small Riverina town:

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